Anabolic steroids – it’s pharmacological agents that mimic the action of male sex hormone – testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Anabolic steroids accelerate protein synthesis within the cells, which leads to pronounced muscle hypertrophy (generally referred to as the process anabolism), whereby they are widely used in body building. The action of anabolic steroids is conventionally divided into two areas: the anabolic activity and androgenic activity. The word “anabolic” comes from the Greek “anabolein”, which translates as “to build”, the word “androgen” comes from the word “andros” and “genein”, which translates as “a man to do” or “omuzhestvlyat”.
Anabolic steroids are a large number of synonyms:
- AU (abbr. Anabolic Steroids)
- AAS (abbr Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids -. The official name in the foreign literature)
- Vitamins (slang name in bodybuilding)
- Chemistry (slang name in bodybuilding)
- Pharma (slang name in bodybuilding)
The history of anabolic steroids
The use of anabolic steroids dates back to their identification and isolation. Medical use of the extract of the testicles of animals began in the late 19th century. In 1931, Adolf Butenandt managed to isolate 15 mg of androstenone of 10 000 liters of urine. This anabolic steroid was subsequently synthesized Leopold Ruzicka in 1934.
In 1930 it was already known that the extract of testes contained a more powerful anabolic steroid than androstenone. Three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies, three from different countries: the Netherlands, Nazi Germany and Switzerland began to search for more powerful components. Thus, in May 1935, Karoly Gyula David, E. Dingemanse, J.Freud and Ernst Laqueur was able to allocate crystalline testosterone. The hormone was so named based on their origin: the dough – egg, sterol – steroid structure, and ending -one, which suggests that the substance is a ketone.
The chemical synthesis of testosterone from cholesterol was produced in the same year Butenandt and G. Hanisch. Within a week after the event, the third group Ruzicka and A. Wettstein made an application to patent a new method of chemical synthesis of testosterone. Ruzicka and Butenandt received for his invention, the Nobel Prize in 1939.
Clinical trials on humans, including oral administration of methyltestosterone and testosterone propionate injections, begun in 1937.
The first mention of an anabolic steroid strength sports history dates back to 1938, when it comes to testosterone propionate in a letter to the editor of Strength and Health magazine. There are rumors that Nazi Germany used anabolic steroids on soldiers, in order to increase aggression and stamina, but at present these facts have no official confirmation. However, Adolf Hitler himself received injections of anabolic steroids, according to his personal physician. Anabolic steroids were used by the Nazis in experiments on concentration camp inmates. In other countries, anabolic steroids used for the treatment and rehabilitation of malnourished prisoners, who were released from the camps.
Improvement of the anabolic properties of testosterone conducted in the 1940s in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where anabolic steroids were being used to improve the performance of Olympic weightlifting. In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the US Olympic team doctor, to Dr. John Ziegler, began to work with chemists to develop an anabolic steroid with less androgenic activity , with the result that was obtained methandrostenolone. The new drug was approved by FDA in 1958. Most often it is prescribed for the treatment of severe burns, and the elderly, but most of methandrostenolone consumed in bodybuilding and other power sports. Dr. John Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, but he later said that in athletes who exceed the dosage occurredprostatic hypertrophy , and testicular atrophy .
In 1976, anabolic steroids have been banned by the International Olympic Committee, this ends the story of their legitimate use in sport, and 10 years after it had developed special tests for anabolic steroids in urine.
The search for new anabolic steroids
Currently, the diversity of anabolic steroids and their modification is based on four main ideas:
- Alkylation at position 17 alpha-methyl or ethyl group, to prevent the destruction of drugs in the liver, which makes possible the oral administration in tablet form.
- Esterification of 17-beta position, which makes the drug soluble in fats and allows the creation of a depot in the tissue, which resolves a long time, thereby significantly increasing the duration of action (several months) anabolic agent.
- Changing the ring structure of an anabolic steroid relates to oral and parenteral drugs, is associated with the desire to enhance the anabolic index.
- Changes in the structure, which prevents the conversion of steroids into estrogen.
Also currently under active development of a new class of selective androgen receptor modulator .
The mechanism of action of steroids
The mechanism of action of anabolic steroids is not like the effect of peptide hormones. Once in the blood, steroid molecules spread throughout the body, where they react with skeletal muscle cells, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, certain parts of the brain and some endocrine glands. Anabolic steroids are fat-soluble and therefore can penetrate the cell membrane, consisting of fats; intracellular anabolic steroids interact (communicate) with androgen receptors of the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The activated androgen receptors transmit a signal inside the cell nucleus, resulting in changing expression of genes are activated or processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The result is a stimulation of the synthesis of nucleic acid species and starts the formation of new protein molecules.
The effect of anabolic steroids on muscle mass increase is due to the following mechanisms:
- protein synthesis acceleration
- Cooldown Reduction
- reducing the influence of catabolic hormones (cortisol and others.)
- differentiation of cells in the displacement direction of muscle, reducing the formation of fat cells
- acceleration of metabolic reactions, due to which there is fat decay
- muscle memory
The effects of anabolic steroids
The effects of anabolic steroids are divided into two main categories: anabolic and androgenic .
- A significant increase in muscle mass (10.5 kg per month)
- The increase in power rates
- Increased stamina and performance
- Increase in the number of red blood cells
- Strengthening bone
- The reduction of fat reserves
- prostate Hypertrophy
- testicular atrophy
- Loss of hairon the head, and the activation of the growth on the face and body
What shows that pursued only in bodybuilding anabolic effects. Currently under development steroids, which have a pronounced anabolic effect and low androgenic. The indicator, which reflects the ratio is called anabolic index . At the moment, nearly all anabolic steroids have androgenic effects.
- Increased appetite
- Increased self-confidence and self-esteem
- Increased sex drive
Side effects of anabolic steroids
See main article: The side effects of steroids and how to reduce the harm of steroids
In the following list of side effects are listed according to frequency of occurrence.
During the cycle:
- Irritability or “steroid rage”
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased libido(sometimes regarded as a useful effect)
- mood swings
- Fluid retention (for flavoring)
- Increasing cholesterol levels (as a result – atherosclerosis)
- Gynecomastia(cause only those anabolic steroids, which are converted to estrogens or those with progestin activity – trenbolone and nandrolones)
- Masculinizationin women
- Liver damage (peculiar to those drugs that have a methyl group in the alpha position 17)
- Hypertrophy of the myocardium with the development of ischemia
- Stopping the growth in young age
- Hair loss(rarely)
After the cycle:
- Reduced libido
- Psychological addiction (obsessive desire to repeat the cycle)
- Reduced sperm production
- Testicular atrophy(in overdose and long-term cycles)
Picture complications largely determined by the pharmacological profile of the drug, some are safer than others. To minimize the risk requires a strict adherence to the administration and control of a medical professional.
Exaggerating the dangers of steroids in the media
Despite the variety of side effects of anabolic steroids should be noted that at present the information on them is exaggerated. In the press and on TV, you can often hear that taking anabolic steroids leads to the inevitable infertility, impotence, liver damage and so on, but in fact even excessive doses of steroids do not always lead to irreversible consequences.
In addition, it is necessary to distinguish between the concept of “use” and “abuse”. Thus, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) intake of anabolic steroids according to the instructions in the 80-95% does not cause complications and adverse reactions, with most of the side effects is completely reversible.
The abuse involves steroids in high doses or excessive duration of the cycle. In this situation, the risk of side effects is increased significantly, increased frequency of irreversible complications. As a rule, the media steroids presented against the background of “abuse”, so to create a false picture of the extreme dangers of using anabolic steroids.
Preventing adverse effects
- Do not exceed the recommended dose
- Do not combine multiple anabolic steroids, if not stipulated rate
- Do not exceed the duration of the cycle
- Women are generally not recommended to take anabolic steroids or to make a choice of preparations with high anabolic index.
- Do not use anabolic steroids under the age of 25 years
- Be sure to include in the cycle of the PCT, it will significantly reduce or prevent many side effects.
These recommendations can reduce the frequency of side effects to 1% or below, and to maintain muscle mass and typed results.
Anabolic steroids in bodybuilding
Anabolic steroids are used in bodybuilding in the first place in order to increase muscle mass and strength indicators. In addition, steroids help to maintain muscle mass during drying and working on relief, help to increase training performance by increasing endurance and strength.
When muscle recruitment intake of anabolic steroids should be combined with systematic weight training, high-calorie meals. From sports nutrition at the same time with steroids, it is desirable to use a protein , BCAA’s because they need to build their own proteins, in addition, you can take creatine , vitamin and mineral complex , as well as additives for the PCT .
Tags: Bulking Steroids